- Generic attributes, those things it must do well to survive in its category. A car must have 4 wheels, be reliable, and not leak in the rain, a watch must tell the time, accurately.
- Differentiators, those characteristics that distinguish the product from all others, the thing a group of customers values, that creates loyalty & preference. These can be physical, and emotional, and most successful brands combine both.
Every brand to be successful has two dimensions.
A Rolls Royce is not a Hyundi, yet they are both cars, they both provide reliable transport, and have 4 wheels, but the differentiators, for which some are prepared to pay enormous amounts are what makes the brand. A swatch is not a Rollex, but they are both watches, just different types of watch that appeal to different people for different reasons.
A brand is not a brand without the distinctive characteristics, it does not matter how much advertising is spent, without the differentiators, it is just like all the others.