The easier it is to quantify, the less it will be worth. This appears to be a pretty harsh judgment, but the reality is that if you can quantify and standardise something, it can be copied.

This is the case, until you consider the value created by subtle differences, particularly in consumer products, and original creations, a painting, poem, piece of music , new gadget, a new expression, or a new use for a staple product

An original Van Gough is worth tens of millions, but a copy it would take an expert to pick, done by very capable technicians in China, can be had for a modest amount. It is not that the copy is a lesser painting technically, it is just not the original.

Seeking the original is the core of innovation and commercial sustainability, as the alternative is to chase the cost curve to the bottom, where in the long run, the best return possible for the lowest cost producer is around the cost of capital.